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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Inflammatory protein expression. Alterations in (a) TNF-α, (b) IL-1 β, (c) ICAM-1, and (d) VCAM-1 expression after ischemia were demonstrated. Compared to the control group, all of the ischemia groups saw an increased expression of inflammatory proteins (*P < 0.05, a-d) at 24 h. The 2-h ischemia group had significantly reduced expression of ICAM-1 (##P < 0.01, c) and VCAM-1 (###P < 0.001, d), and increased IL-1 β (#P < 0.05, b) and TNF-α (###P < 0.001, a) levels compared to the permanent ischemia group. The same trend was also found when compared to the 4-h ischemia group (#P < 0.05, a-d). The 4-h ischemia group had slightly reduced levels of VCAM-1, and increased IL-1 β, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 levels compared to the permanent ischemia group (a-d). TNF-α: Tumour necrosis factor α, IL-1: Interleukin-1, ICAM-1: Intercellular adhesion molecule, VCAM-1: Vascular cell adhesion protein

Figure 3: Inflammatory protein expression. Alterations in (a) TNF-α, (b) IL-1 β, (c) ICAM-1, and (d) VCAM-1 expression after ischemia were demonstrated. Compared to the control group, all of the ischemia groups saw an increased expression of inflammatory proteins (*<i>P</i> < 0.05, a-d) at 24 h. The 2-h ischemia group had significantly reduced expression of ICAM-1 (<sup>##</sup><i>P</i> < 0.01, c) and VCAM-1 (<sup>###</sup><i>P</i> < 0.001, d), and increased IL-1 β (<sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05, b) and TNF-α (<sup>###</sup><i>P</i> < 0.001, a) levels compared to the permanent ischemia group. The same trend was also found when compared to the 4-h ischemia group (<sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05, a-d). The 4-h ischemia group had slightly reduced levels of VCAM-1, and increased IL-1 β, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 levels compared to the permanent ischemia group (a-d). TNF-α: Tumour necrosis factor α, IL-1: Interleukin-1, ICAM-1: Intercellular adhesion molecule, VCAM-1: Vascular cell adhesion protein