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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| January-March  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 21, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on behavior, body and brain weights of exposed rats
Uche Stephen Akataobi
January-March 2020, 5(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_31_19  
Purpose: Consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in food, drink, and other consumables has been linked to different observable changes believed to be as a result of MSG's effects on the brain. Furthermore, it is believed that blood–brain barrier plays a role on how these effects are felt in different stages of life. The present study is an attempt to understand the differential effect of MSG by studying body and brain weights as well as physiological changes in the behavior of rats exposed at different stages of life (either as neonate or as adult). Materials and Methods: Pups were administered 4 mg/g MSG on postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, allowed to mature for 26 weeks, and afterward divided into three groups (n = 6) and administered saline, 5 mg/g, and 10 mg/g MSG for 6 weeks. Two other groups, not exposed to MSG at neonatal age (adult), were similarly administered 5 mg/g and 10 mg/g MSG for 6 weeks. During this period, weight gain and behavioral observation was made, and at the end of the 6 weeks, brain weight was measured. Results: A dose-dependent effect of MSG was recorded in both neonatal- and adult-administered rats in all the parameters studied. Conclusion: MSG affects both neonate and adult rats similarly, thus adult exposure may be used in studies involving MSG and other neurotoxic chemicals.
  2 18,210 1,824
COMMENTARY
Some aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident
Sergei V Jargin
January-March 2020, 5(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_6_20  
Average whole-body doses after the Fukushima accident remained within the limits of natural radiation background. Thyroid doses were much lower than after the Chernobyl accident. Associations between detection rate of thyroid cancer (TC) and radiation doses after the Fukushima accident were reported, although there have been contradicting data. There are various factors and bias that can contribute to the associations: screening effect, recall bias, dose-dependent quality of diagnostics, selection, and self-selection. There have been methodological differences of the screening in different areas. In the screened young-age group, TCs were found predominantly in adolescents, but not in vulnerable children ≤5 years at exposure, suggesting that tumors are not radiogenic. A possibility of overdiagnosis was pointed out, i.e., detection of thyroid tumors that would not, if left untreated, result in symptoms. Furthermore, exaggeration of perinatal complications may cause anxiety and lead to interruption of wanted pregnancies, as it happened after the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, no discernible increase of radiation-related health effects is expected after the Fukushima accident. There are no reasons to disagree with the judgment by the UNSCEAR that an increased risk of thyroid tumors among most exposed children could be theoretically inferred, although occurrence of large numbers of radiation-induced cases can be discounted. The monitoring of populations exposed to low-dose radiation is important, but will hardly add much reliable information. It can be expected that the screening and increased attention of exposed people to their health would result in more reports on elevated risks that would prove no causality.
  1 2,357 165
BOOK REVIEW
Genome chaos: Redefying genetics, evolution, and environmental factors in medicine
Kezhong Zhang
January-March 2020, 5(1):25-27
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_12_20  
  - 3,007 425
EDITORIAL
Environmental factors in novel coronavirus outbreak
Kezhong Zhang
January-March 2020, 5(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_8_20  
  - 1,810 211
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ratios of lymphocyte and neutrophil to lymphocyte as early predictors of the severity of acute pancreatitis at different age stratifications
Peng Liu, Zhang-Dong Feng, Yu Ji, Zi-Yu Zhang, Ting-Long Zhang, Redina Bardhi, Zhi-Li Ji, Wei Han
January-March 2020, 5(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_35_19  
Goal: To explore the values of lymphocyte ratio (LR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in patients of different ages. Background and Aims: LR and NLR, as early markers, can predict the severity of disease in patients with AP according to previous studies. However, all of the studies ignored the influence of the age factor. Study: The patients with AP from January 2012 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) groups according to the latest Atlanta classification. In each group, the patients were further divided into the young and middle-aged group (ages ≤65), and the elderly group (ages >65). The neutrophil ratio (NR), LR and NLR were detected and collected within 24 h of disease onset. The relationship between various indicators and severity of AP was evaluated. Results: NLR (11.15±8.20 vs. 7.83±9.17 P < 0.001) significantly increased whereas LR (10.72±6.32 vs. 16.77±9.70 P < 0.001) significantly decreased in the SAP group compared to the MAP group. LR and NLR demonstrated a significant predictive value in the young- and middle-aged group. However, LR and NLR were not significant predictors in the elderly group. Conclusions: The LR reduction and NLR elevation in the early stages were closely related to the severity of AP. They were both important markers for predicting severity of AP, especially in the young and middle-aged patients.
  - 15,843 2,505
SHORT COMMUNICATION
The global status of antimicrobial resistance: A long way to go
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
January-March 2020, 5(1):23-24
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_26_19  
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has jeopardized the prevention and therapeutic option to a broad range of infections caused by microorganisms. The findings of a recently released global survey depicted that 68%, 44% and 80% of the 154 participating nations have developed a surveillance system for reporting drug-resistant infections among humans, tracking consumption of drugs, and establishment of necessary policies to regulate the sale of the drugs respectively. Despite the presence of these measures, the presence of unregulated medicines cannot be denied and it won't be wrong to say that drugs are being sold over the counter and without the prescription. In other words, these are a direct indication that there is an immense need for better investment and focused actions to respond to the problem. To summarize, antimicrobial resistance is a major and a serious threat to the global public health and essentially requires interventions across different nations and communities to deal with the problem.
  - 1,794 167