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   2016| July-September  | Volume 1 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 12, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Pathophysiological effects of particulate matter air pollution on the central nervous system
Joshua C Wright, Yuchuan Ding
July-September 2016, 1(3):85-89
DOI:10.4103/2468-5690.191932  
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a leading public health concern across most of the populated world. Elevated PM levels cause both acute increases in cardiovascular mortality and the development of long-term neurological pathology. Upon inhalation, PM reaches the brain through entry into pulmonary capillaries and directly through the olfactory mucosa. Population-based and animal studies reveal decreases in brain size and increases in inflammatory markers following long-term exposure to elevated PM concentrations. In vitro, cell culture studies indicate that components of PM air pollution are neurotoxic. In addition to direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS), PM induces aberrant local and systemic inflammatory responses that can induce and exacerbate cerebral injury. Hypertension and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity are observed within days of increased PM exposure and may contribute to short-term rises in mortality rate. Substantial epidemiological evidence links PM concentration with both short-term and long-term risk of stroke. It has been suggested that the increased stroke risk is due to potentiation of cerebrovascular inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, reactive oxygen species production, and atherosclerosis. This review examines the pathophysiological mechanisms by which PM damages the CNS and the cerebrovasculature.
  5,347 676 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Purview of allergens through skin test in Central India
Ashok Arbat, Sneha Tirpude, Mitesh K Dave, Sukhant Bagdia, Sameer Arbat
July-September 2016, 1(3):99-104
DOI:10.4103/2468-5690.191983  
Introduction: Clinical history and examination are very important for determining allergy. The most common forms being bronchial asthma (BA) and allergic rhinitis (AR). A lot of patients respond to the primary line of treatment. Patients come forward with the objective of uprooting the cause of these allergies. Skin prick test (SPT) helps in finding the most likely cause after which we can offer them the desensitization and protective advice. Objective: To evaluate the performance of various aeroallergens by assessment with SPT in Central India population. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-three patients with BA and AR were subjected to SPT. SPT was performed with antigen extracts from India. Results: Of the 143 patients, 86 (60%) patients had both BA and AR. These 143 patients showed 454 positive SPT results. Of the 454, 223 (49%) were positive for mites alone. Among the three mites tested for, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 81 (17.8%) was the most common. The study of seasonal distribution of allergens showed peaked results for mites in winter. Parthenium hysterophorus (congress grass) 11 (7.7%) was the most common pollen found. Conclusions: The dust mite had the greatest frequency in this study. Humidity levels are critical for the growth of mites, which provides a valuable clue to protect against it. Avoiding the relevant allergens can be a remedy for AR patients and reduce the frequency of symptoms in asthmatics.
  4,297 359 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Chinese medicine and environmental disease
Lei Wang, Kun Qiao, Hengtai Zhang, Kezhong Zhang
July-September 2016, 1(3):95-98
DOI:10.4103/2468-5690.191981  
Environmental diseases represent the major challenge to the modern human health. Despite the increased public health challenges, "Western Medicine," or modern medicine, has limited solutions in regard to the prevention or treatment of environment-associated complex chronic diseases. In contrast, "Integrative or Alternative Medicine," particularly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), shows promising health benefits in improving the symptoms or even curing some of chronic environmental diseases. TCM defines disease as a disharmony or imbalance in the functions of inner body energy circuit or interactions between the human body and the environment. The principals of diagnosis and treatment of TCM are to identify the patterns of disharmony and restore systemic harmony inside human body and between the human body and environment. These principles are well in line with the etiology and development of modern environmental diseases. In this review, we summarize some progress in using TCM to treat environment-associated, modern human common diseases.
  3,585 298 -
Fat, diet, and intracranial atherosclerosis
Jiamei Shen, Xiaokun Geng, James Stevenson, Longfei Guan, Yuchuan Ding
July-September 2016, 1(3):90-94
DOI:10.4103/2468-5690.191978  
Atherosclerosis in the cerebral vasculature is a major risk factor for death and disability. However, atherosclerosis has been primarily studied in the coronary vasculature despite the distinct characteristics of the brain's vessel morphometry and biochemistry. Recent preclinical work has established a rat model for studying intracranial atherosclerosis to optimize pharmacologic and lifestyle changes to prevent or reverse this disease. One such preventative strategy utilizes dietary omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs), which have gained public interest due to its potential application in various diseases. A large number of studies of O3FA have examined the basic scientific framework, and this article examines its role as a dietary supplement to prevent the development of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.
  3,276 306 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Strengthening prevention and control activities to respond to the challenge of emergence of Chikungunya in American and European regions
Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
July-September 2016, 1(3):105-106
DOI:10.4103/2468-5690.191985  
  2,342 228 -