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Pathophysiological status and nutritional therapy of peptic ulcer: An update
Mayank Kulshreshtha, Gunja Srivastava, Manjul Pratap Singh
July-September 2017, 2(3):76-86
Peptic ulcer (PU) is the most common disease of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which affects the stomach and duodenum. It is characterized by an imbalance between the aggressive and defensive factors. Lifestyle and eating habits play an important role in the case of PU. According to the latest World Health Organization data published in April 2011, PU disease deaths in India reached 108,392 or 1.20% of the total deaths. The age-adjusted death rate is 12.37/100,000 of population, which leads India to 5th rank in the world. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific data, herbal research, nutritional therapy, precautions, and pharmacological/nonpharmacological treatment regarding PU. The update conclusion regarding PU therapy was concluded with the help of published scientific data on Pub Med, Google Scholar, Med Know, Elsevier and other online resources. Natural remedies are found to be safe (minimum side effects) whereas, in allopathic treatment, antacids with the combination of proton pump inhibitors can better control PU. A balanced dietary plan should be advised by health care professionals or providers to patients suffering from PU. Following good habits and avoiding spicy food make our GIT healthy. Hence, a better lifestyle automatically cures the PU. Better knowledge with balanced lifestyle is an excellent treatment of PU.
  16,492 1,004 4
Genotype, environment, and evolutionary mechanism of diseases
Henry H. Q. Heng, Sarah Regan, Christine J Ye
January-March 2016, 1(1):14-23
Large-scale genomic projects have unexpectedly challenged the current approach of focusing on genes in disease studies. As common gene mutations are difficult to identify for common/complex diseases, and the diagnostic distinction of gene profile between “normal” and “patient” becomes increasingly blurry, the power of gene-focused studies in medicine is actually decreasing. More attention is now being focused on gene–environment interaction. However, such a transition is still within the framework of using molecular descriptions of specific genes for understanding diseases, which is challenging in the clinic, where nonlinear relationships are dominant. In this article, we define diseases as genotype/environment-induced variants that are not compatible with a current environment. This explains (1) why the genotype is not simply the gene mutation profile, but comprised of multiple levels of genetic/nongenetic (including epigenetic) variations, as environmental dynamics require all sorts of system modifications; (2) why many disease conditions represent a trade-off of cellular adaptation, in addition to inherited or environment-induced bio-errors; and (3) why costly variants function as the “insurance policy” for adapting to the unpredictability of environments. This leads to the general mechanism of the majority of diseases: genotype–environment interaction generates variations, which are either essential for future crises or useful for current cellular function. Unfortunately, as a trade-off, these variants also contribute to diseases. This general mechanism can unify diverse specific molecular mechanisms, and suggests that the goal of eliminating all diseases is not only impossible, but also comes with the potential negative consequence of reducing the heterogeneity essential for human survival.
  8,130 1,034 -
Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with autism spectrum disorder in US males but not in females: Results from the National Survey on Children's Health
Naila Khalil, Bhupinder Kaur, Alexandra Lawson, James Ebert, Ramzi Nahhas
January-March 2018, 3(1):8-17
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is linked with neurobehavioral disorders in children. This study evaluated the SHS exposure and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children in the United States. Materials and Methods: Parent-reported postnatal SHS exposure and ASD diagnosis were examined in children age 2 to 12 years using the 2011–2012 National Survey on Children's Health. The physician diagnosis of current ASD as reported by the parents was used as the outcome. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of ASD with SHS after adjusting for risk factors. Results: Of the 56,710 children, 24% had SHS exposure, 2% had ASD, and the mean age was 7 years. SHS exposure was associated with 47% greater odds of ASD in male children (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05, 2.07; P = 0.025). In contrast, SHS was not significantly associated with ASD in female children (adjusted OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.40, 1.29; P = 0.266). Other significant factors associated with ASD diagnosis in male children were age, income, mother's education, and mental health status. Conclusions: SHS is significantly associated with ASD in male children. Sociodemographic factors, natal and prenatal characteristics are important etiologic influences for ASD. Targeted efforts to change the smoking behavior of parents and caregivers of children could reduce ASD.
  8,050 418 1
We must continue to tease out the role of stress in the development of disease
Christopher R Stone, Yuchuan Ding
October-December 2016, 1(4):107-108
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Analysis of correlation between defecation posture and risk of urinary tract infections among adolescent populations
Subramani Parasuraman, Lim Ee Wen, Aaseer Thamby Sam, Parayil Varghese Christapher, Krishnamoorthy Venkates Kumar
April-June 2016, 1(2):77-82
Objective: To assess the correlation between defecation posture and risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) rates among a representative adolescent sample in Malaysia Methods: The study was conducted between February 2015 and September 2015 using Google forms. A total of 568 enrolled and 551 participated in the study. The online questionnaire was divided into three sections viz., informed consent info; demographic details; knowledge and attitude analysis. The form was circulated online to obtain the responses. Results: The mean age of study participants was 23.99 ΁ 6.04 years. Majority of the study population used western type of toilet and felt comfortable with it. In the public context (movie halls, shopping malls etc.), most of the study participants preferred to use Indian/squatting type of toilet to avoid bodily contact with the toilet bowl. The study population was Malaysian. The respondents normally defecated at least once a day and normally took <10 min to defecate. About 38.8% of the respondents who were having sharing accommodation were not sure about the frequency of toilet cleaning. Totally, 10.7% of the study participants had previous history of UTIs, with the average duration of infection being around 5 days to 3 weeks. Conclusion: Defecation is an important physiological event and many of the study participants required more education on normal physiological methods of defecation postures. Appropriate education is required to improve the personal health and reducing the risk of acquiring UTIs.
  5,446 538 -
Pathophysiological effects of particulate matter air pollution on the central nervous system
Joshua C Wright, Yuchuan Ding
July-September 2016, 1(3):85-89
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a leading public health concern across most of the populated world. Elevated PM levels cause both acute increases in cardiovascular mortality and the development of long-term neurological pathology. Upon inhalation, PM reaches the brain through entry into pulmonary capillaries and directly through the olfactory mucosa. Population-based and animal studies reveal decreases in brain size and increases in inflammatory markers following long-term exposure to elevated PM concentrations. In vitro, cell culture studies indicate that components of PM air pollution are neurotoxic. In addition to direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS), PM induces aberrant local and systemic inflammatory responses that can induce and exacerbate cerebral injury. Hypertension and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity are observed within days of increased PM exposure and may contribute to short-term rises in mortality rate. Substantial epidemiological evidence links PM concentration with both short-term and long-term risk of stroke. It has been suggested that the increased stroke risk is due to potentiation of cerebrovascular inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, reactive oxygen species production, and atherosclerosis. This review examines the pathophysiological mechanisms by which PM damages the CNS and the cerebrovasculature.
  5,177 666 8
Progress in the studies on hormesis of low-dose pollutants
Junyi Shi, Mitchell Huber, Ting Wang, Wang Dali, Zhifen Lin, Yin Chun-Sheng
April-June 2016, 1(2):58-64
Hormesis can be defined as a biphasic dose-response relationship characterized by low-dose simulation and high-dose inhibition. Given that environmental pollutants are more often found at lower doses, hormesis research has become a recent hot spot in toxicology. This study summarizes current progress on hormesis research, which can be discussed in three contexts: The universality of hormesis, hormesis mechanisms, and the quantification of hormetic responses. The universality of hormesis has been verified, but the degree to which hormesis should be taken into risk assessments and risk management plans remains controversial. Regarding mechanisms, we discuss how our mechanistic understanding of hormesis has come a long way but still lacks strong experimental support, which leads to uncertainty as to the exact underlying causes of hormesis. This study also describes the hormesis quantitative research process and points out that due to an incomplete mechanistic understanding of hormesis, quantitative research has progressed slowly and lacks accurate quantitative characterization parameters and prediction models. Finally, we discuss that a future trend may be to investigate hormesis quantitative characterization parameters based on toxicity mechanism and to establish a quantitative prediction model of hormesis that incorporates those parameters.
  4,884 659 14
Medical geology of arsenic in groundwater and well water in Southeast Michigan
Mary Asher, Erika Cleary, Richard Olawoyin
January-March 2017, 2(1):9-21
Arsenic concentrations exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum containment level (MCL) of 10 μg/l are frequently reported in groundwater and well water in Southeast (SE) Michigan. The following research examined the relationship between arsenic exposure in well water and groundwater in SE Michigan and several adverse health effects including cancer, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, and kidney disease. The expected outcome was to prove that arsenic exposure is a problem in the area while addressing mitigation strategies and technologies needed to reduce exposure. The objective of this research was to propose effective methods and strategies to help mitigate and reduce the risk of arsenic exposure for the population in SE Michigan. Reducing arsenic concentration in well water and groundwater will help reduce adverse health effects as well as keep drinking water safe for residents in the area. Relevant data about the geology of the area and epidemiological studies of arsenic-related disease and mortality rates proved the increased incidence of diseases related to arsenic exposure in the area. The population demographic data and arsenic exposure data were analyzed. The data collected demonstrated that residents in SE Michigan are exposed to elevated arsenic concentrations in well water and groundwater that exceed the EPA MCL. The elevated levels of arsenic in well water and groundwater are due to the mobilized inorganic arsenic in the bedrock aquifers in SE Michigan. The findings from the research show that arsenic, even at low levels, is harmful to human health. Mitigation strategies discussed include legislative action, systems for removing arsenic from water, adopting improved well-drilling practices, education, using bottled water, and more. Implementing these controls would increase the health and quality of life for residents of SE Michigan.
  5,043 406 1
Challenges and new strategies for Gulf War illness research
Henry H. Q. Heng
October-December 2016, 1(4):118-125
Gulf War illness (GWI) research has generated an abundance of interesting but diverse data. While increased molecular mechanisms have been identified, the high levels of heterogeneity for initial trigger factors, cellular defects, and symptoms continuously challenge the efforts of clinical implications of the research, including the search for biomarkers and the common mechanism of GWI. In this analysis, I consider GWI as an adaptive illness condition where system stresses and genome instability-mediated cellular evolution play an important role. By further defining GWI as an environmental illness caused by extremely high levels of specific Gulf War (GW) stresses, the challenges for GWI research are briefly reviewed, with comparisons to other common and complex diseases such as cancer. Based on the new discovery that many GWI patients display elevated genome instability coupled with increased cellular stress, a general model of GWI is proposed to unify GW-specific stress, cellular damage, and genome-heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptation and evolution, as well as diverse-related symptoms. Finally, some new strategies are suggested based on the general model of GWI.
  4,618 771 5
Ambient particulate matter pollution on lipid peroxidation in cardiovascular diseases
Lea Ulintz, Qinghua Sun
October-December 2016, 1(4):109-117
Cardiovascular diseases refer to all disorders related to the heart and its circulatory system, such as atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, hypertension, and stroke. In recent years, numerous environmental studies in humans and animal models have confirmed a positive association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. The deleterious impacts of the exposure are involved in multiple mechanisms, in which one is due to the pro-inflammatory effects that result from the peroxidation of lipids, which provide critical structure and function in cellular membranes, the main sites of pollutant attack. This review aims to assess the current scientific literature relating to pertinent mechanisms, molecular pathways, and at-risk populations associated with cardiovascular complications induced by ambient PM exposure.
  3,708 1,617 2
Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Arushana Ali, Kezhong Zhang
April-June 2018, 3(2):31-37
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased over the past few decades due to a rise in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes and obesity. Sedentary lifestyle coupled with exorbitant consumption of high-caloric diet has been associated with root cause of the epidemic increase in chronic liver diseases. NAFLD is a chronic liver disease which encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), further leading to irreversible liver cirrhosis. A “multiple hit working model” is a recognized theory that explains the development and progression of NASH, the advanced stage of NAFLD. According to this model, initial hit leads to the development of steatosis, which makes the liver vulnerable to following hits induced by inflammatory cytokines, endotoxins, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, saturated fatty acid deposition, and/or hepatic organelle dysfunction. These hits eventually result in hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis, which are considered the key features of NASH. Accumulation of hepatic fats leads to the activation of various pathways, including unfolded protein response, which is associated with intracellular stress and inflammation. ER plays a crucial role in restoring cellular homeostasis by directing either through the refolding of misfolded proteins or employing several alternative mechanisms such as ER-associated degradation. ER stress response also causes insulin resistance and inflammation and in the worst cases, culminates in severe liver damage and hepatic cell death, all of which are central to the pathogenesis of NASH. This review sheds some light on recent findings of ER stress response and oxidative stress in the progression of NAFLD.
  4,472 509 1
Particulate air pollution and neurological diseases: The role of tauopathies
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Dean Wu, Jiunn-Horng Kang
January-March 2018, 3(1):4-7
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, and parkinsonism, are due to the gradual and progressive loss of neural cells, leading to nervous system dysfunction. Increasing epidemiological and toxicological evidence has demonstrated the possible association between neurological diseases and particulate air pollution. Chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM) of <2.5 μm in aerodynamic size (PM2.5) is related to reductions in white matter and gray matter in brains of older women. Alterations of the structural integrity of the brain were reported for particulate air pollution-induced neurological disorders. Clinically, intraneuronal accumulation of tau proteins is considered to be an important hallmark of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease brains, for example, hyperphosphorylated levels of tau are around 3–4 times higher than levels in normal adult brains. Tau overexpression in neuroblastoma cells can lead to tau aggregations and the appearance of smaller proteolytic fragments. Degradative mechanisms, such as autophagy that remove tau from cells are considered essential functions for maintaining the brain's health. Notably, increasing numbers of reports have indicated that autophagy dysfunction occurs due to particulate air pollution in vitro and in vivo. Dysfunction of autophagy can lead to tau accumulation in the brain. We reviewed the effects of particulate air pollution on neurological diseases and the underlying mechanisms (i.e., tau and autophagy). Further toxicological evidence is required to fill in the gaps between epidemiological and clinical observations.
  4,468 479 1
Secondhand smoke: A comparison of exposure to bar employees in a state with smoking bans and a state without smoking bans
Oluwapese M Akinbobola, Mac Crawford, Qinghua Sun
April-June 2016, 1(2):65-76
Background: Only 28 states have comprehensive laws prohibiting smoking in public places including all bars and restaurants. This project studied secondhand smoke (SHS) in bars in Covington, KY, where it is still legal to smoke indoors versus air quality in Cincinnati, OH bars where it is not legal to smoke indoors. Previous studies took samples from bars before and after smoking bans were put in place, but outdoor air quality in general could have changed in the areas over time. Materials and Methods: Air samples were taken in eight bars, four in Ohio where smoking is prohibited and four in Kentucky where smoking is permitted. All samples were taken on the same evening spending 30 min in each location with the instrument as close to the center of the room as possible. Results: Environmental conditions in Cincinnati, OH, and Covington, KY were very similar on the sampling evening. This along with the fact that the two cities are adjacent across the state line means that the bars in question should be subjected to similar outdoor air influences on air quality. However, the overall average time-weighted average (TWA) in Ohio was found to be 0.019 while the average TWA in Kentucky was 16 times higher at 0.303 mg/m 3 . Conclusion: Smoking bans have been shown to reduce the levels of exposure of SHS to the employees of bars and restaurants along with the patrons of these establishments. This reduces the risk of disease that may result from such exposure.
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Ongoing progress in cleaning China's air: A novel outlook into pollution
Joshua C Wright, Zhili Ji, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
April-June 2016, 1(2):43-50
Over the past 30 years, particulate matter (PM) air pollution has progressively worsened in many of China's urban and suburban areas. This review provides a current picture of the air pollution in China with an emphasis on the history of PM pollution, policies and reduction goals, recent improvements, and known adverse health effects of PM exposure. Several studies have provided the analyses of current PM pollution levels in cities across China using satellite data and air-monitoring stations. These analyses are consistent with the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) 2015 air pollution report, which concluded that only 8 of 74 (10.8%) cities met the Chinese standards for safe annual average PM 2.5 exposure (35 μg/m 3 ). Even fewer cities met the World Health Organization PM 2.5 guideline of 10 μg/m 3 . The Government of China has acknowledged the public health threat of PM pollution and enacted higher standards and goals through the 12 th five-year plan (FYP) (2010), National Ambient Air Quality Standard (2012), the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013), and the 13 th FYP (2016). A comparative analysis between 2010 and 2015 satellite data shows that PM pollution decreased by around 17% during this period. This improvement is corroborated by the MEP's report on the State of the Environment in 2014 and the global burden of disease report in 2013. Despite these changes, PM pollution remains a substantial public health challenge. In 2010, an estimated 1.235 million deaths in China were attributed to PM air pollution. Long-term exposure to PM pollution increases the rates of cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory mortality. In particular, PM exposure increases the morbidity of respiratory illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and lower respiratory infections (LRIs). Elevated levels of PM have been found to increase the incidence of all of the top five causes of death in 2012: Ischemic heart disease, stroke, COPD, LRI, and lung cancer. In addition, higher PM pollution decreases average birth weight, raises incidence of preterm birth, and increases the prevalence of Type II diabetes mellitus across the population. With the knowledge of these serious health consequences, China must enact greater measures to reduce dangerous PM levels.
  4,136 519 6
Purview of allergens through skin test in Central India
Ashok Arbat, Sneha Tirpude, Mitesh K Dave, Sukhant Bagdia, Sameer Arbat
July-September 2016, 1(3):99-104
Introduction: Clinical history and examination are very important for determining allergy. The most common forms being bronchial asthma (BA) and allergic rhinitis (AR). A lot of patients respond to the primary line of treatment. Patients come forward with the objective of uprooting the cause of these allergies. Skin prick test (SPT) helps in finding the most likely cause after which we can offer them the desensitization and protective advice. Objective: To evaluate the performance of various aeroallergens by assessment with SPT in Central India population. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-three patients with BA and AR were subjected to SPT. SPT was performed with antigen extracts from India. Results: Of the 143 patients, 86 (60%) patients had both BA and AR. These 143 patients showed 454 positive SPT results. Of the 454, 223 (49%) were positive for mites alone. Among the three mites tested for, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 81 (17.8%) was the most common. The study of seasonal distribution of allergens showed peaked results for mites in winter. Parthenium hysterophorus (congress grass) 11 (7.7%) was the most common pollen found. Conclusions: The dust mite had the greatest frequency in this study. Humidity levels are critical for the growth of mites, which provides a valuable clue to protect against it. Avoiding the relevant allergens can be a remedy for AR patients and reduce the frequency of symptoms in asthmatics.
  4,189 352 4
Bisphenol A (BPA) in liquid portions of canned foods obtained from domestic and Asian markets in the United States
Aby Joiakim, David Kaplan, David A Putt, Julia Matzenbacher Santos, Klaus Friedrich, So Hee Kim, Hyesook Kim
January-March 2019, 4(1):6-11
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a phenolic environmental estrogen that disrupts endocrine activity thereby increasing the risk of hormone-related health problems. The human population is highly exposed to BPA and food is believed to be a primary source of BPA exposure. The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of a BPA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to measure levels of BPA in supernatants obtained from various canned foods from different countries. The concentration of BPA was measured in supernatant from different types of canned soup and vegetable mixes produced by US companies and two companies each from three different Asian countries (Korea, Japan and China), which are available at markets in the USA. ELISA results were confirmed by LC/MS/MS and shown to be in agreement. Cross-reactivity tests demonstrated that BPA ELISA kit does not cross-react with other tested phenolic compounds. There was no significant difference of BPA levels in different types of soups from different US companies. However, levels of BPA in supernatants of canned vegetable mixes of a company in the USA were 200-fold lower than the levels in canned vegetable soups of the US companies. BPA levels varied greatly among canned foods among companies in various countries. Thus, this study validated the use of a simple ELISA assay to measure levels of BPA in supernatants of canned food, which would facilitate the routine monitoring of dietary exposure to BPA. Decreasing the consumption of BPA will lead to a reduction in the risk of adverse health effects.
  3,953 368 1
Environmental diseases
Kezhong Zhang
January-March 2016, 1(1):1-2
  3,072 1,244 -
Fluctuation in ambient temperature: interplay between brown adipose tissue, metabolic health, and cardiovascular diseases
Tse-Yao Wang, Hua Zhou, Qinghua Sun
January-March 2016, 1(1):3-13
The variations in ambient temperature have been associated with high occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, which is one of the leading global risks for the mortality accounting for 50% of the death in the developed countries. Both heat- and cold-related excess mortalities are mostly attributable to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Due to the loss of climate system balance caused by increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, the average global temperatures are expected to rise by 1.1–6.4°C from 1990 to the end of the 21st century. The reinforced intensity, duration, and frequency of heat waves were observed in the past decade with increased average atmosphere and ocean temperature on the Earth. The positive relationship between the heat wave and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has been demonstrated in the areas with either lower or higher average temperatures. That is, to say, the sudden extreme heat condition lays stress on the cardiovascular system in humans. With a growing body of epidemiological studies, extreme temperature environments and cardiovascular conditions have been increasingly associated. As a class of chronic disorders, the initiation and development of cardiovascular diseases were mainly attributed to metabolic disorders reflecting the prolong stress from obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia whereas the stimulus of sudden temperature change was thought to trigger the onset or worsening of major cardiovascular diseases, which were established by these cumulative risk factors. However, the cold temperature exposure has recently been regarded as a novel therapeutic approach to defense against cardiovascular diseases such as obesity which is resulted from the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. With the chronic mild reduction of ambient temperature, the prevalence and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) were upregulated, and the BAT-mediated thermogenesis helps the individual to correct the deviation of energy balance from excess white adipose tissue accumulations. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review the positive and negative effects of the ambient temperature change on cardiovascular diseases, which may lead to new intervention to metabolic health and cardiovascular disease prevention.
  3,788 414 -
Human microbiome and environmental disease
Gary Zhang, Henry H Heng
January-March 2017, 2(1):5-8
The importance of human microbiota and their genomes, human microbiome, in health and disease has been increasingly recognized. Human microbiome has tremendous impact in our pathophysiology by modulating metabolic functions, protecting against pathogens, and educating the immune system. In particular, human microbiome is a major player at the interface between humans and their environment and therefore is crucial to the development of environmental disease. In this article, we briefly summarize and interpret the recent advances in the understanding of the roles of human microbiome in environment-related health and disease, and call for a more systematic integration of human microbiome and environmental disease research within the framework of evolutionary medicine.
  3,497 479 1
A review of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - genetics and animal models
Ze Zheng, Xiaobo Wang, Bishuang Cai
April-June 2016, 1(2):51-57
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, to irreversible cirrhosis. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries and is considered as the hepatic manifestation of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the pathogenesis of NAFLD, hepatic lipid accumulation results from an imbalance between lipid synthesis, storage, oxidation, and/or secretion, and eventually triggers hepatic inflammation and injury. The increasing incidence of NAFLD etiological studies has shown that obesity, hepatitis C, and cryptogenic cirrhosis are associated with NAFLD. Here, we provide a comprehensive NAFLD review that covers the population genetics, genome-wide associated study, epidemiology, pathophysiology of the disease progression, and current existing animal models.
  3,514 422 -
In vitro immunomodulatory, antifungal, and antibacterial screening of Phyllanthus niruri against to human pathogenic microorganisms
VP Shilpa, K Muddukrishnaiah, B Samuel Thavamani, V Dhanapal, KN Arathi, KR Vinod, SR Sreeranjini
July-September 2018, 3(3):63-68
Background: Medicinal plants present a wide range of potentially phytochemical compounds that contain many useful properties including anticancer, enzyme inhibition, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antiallergic activities. Phyllanthus niruri capsules are extensively recommended to improve the function of the diseased liver. Its leaves root and the whole plant are used as an herbal complement. Aim: The present study was aimed to focus on the in vitro immunomodulatory activity, antifungal, antibacterial and phytochemical screening of aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract of P. niruri. Materials and Methods: Immunomodulatory activities were evaluated through nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Antifungal and antibacterial activity were conducted against Candida albicans (NCIM - 3100), Aspergillus niger (NCIM - 1028), Eschericha coli (NCIM - 5346), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM - 2920), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM - 5345) by using disc diffusion method. Results: Medicinal plants contain polyphenolic compounds which have potent anti-cancer and immunomodulator activity. P. niruri has potential immunomodulatory activity. Aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract of P. niruri did not show any significant antifungal activity and 100 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml, and 200 mg/ml. Aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract showed significant antibacterial activity. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that P. niruri does not have antifungal activity but has potent immunomodulatory and antibacterial activity. This immunomodulatory and antibacterial activity of P. niruri may be due to the secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenol compounds.
  3,472 446 -
Effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on behavior, body and brain weights of exposed rats
Uche Stephen Akataobi
January-March 2020, 5(1):3-8
Purpose: Consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in food, drink, and other consumables has been linked to different observable changes believed to be as a result of MSG's effects on the brain. Furthermore, it is believed that blood–brain barrier plays a role on how these effects are felt in different stages of life. The present study is an attempt to understand the differential effect of MSG by studying body and brain weights as well as physiological changes in the behavior of rats exposed at different stages of life (either as neonate or as adult). Materials and Methods: Pups were administered 4 mg/g MSG on postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, allowed to mature for 26 weeks, and afterward divided into three groups (n = 6) and administered saline, 5 mg/g, and 10 mg/g MSG for 6 weeks. Two other groups, not exposed to MSG at neonatal age (adult), were similarly administered 5 mg/g and 10 mg/g MSG for 6 weeks. During this period, weight gain and behavioral observation was made, and at the end of the 6 weeks, brain weight was measured. Results: A dose-dependent effect of MSG was recorded in both neonatal- and adult-administered rats in all the parameters studied. Conclusion: MSG affects both neonate and adult rats similarly, thus adult exposure may be used in studies involving MSG and other neurotoxic chemicals.
  3,581 306 1
Transcriptional signatures of unfolded protein response implicate the limitation of animal models in pathophysiological studies
Ze Zheng, Guohui Wang, Li Li, Jeffery Tseng, Fei Sun, Xuequn Chen, Lin Chang, Henry Heng, Kezhong Zhang
January-March 2016, 1(1):24-30
Background: The unfolded protein response (UPR) refers to intracellular stress signaling pathways that protect cells from the stress caused by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR signaling is crucially involved in the initiation and progression of a variety of human diseases by modulating transcriptional and translational programs of the stressed cells. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures of primary stress sensors and major mediators of UPR pathways in a variety of tissues/organs of human and murine species. Methods: We first analyzed protein sequence similarities of major UPR transducers and mediators of human and murine species, and then examined their gene expression profiles in 26 human and mouse common tissues based on the microarray datasets of public domains. The differential expression patterns of the UPR genes in human diseases were delineated. The involvements of the UPR genes in mouse pathology were also analyzed with mouse gene knockout models. Results: The results indicated that expression patterns and pathophysiologic involvements of the major UPR stress sensors and mediators significantly differ in 26 common tissues/organs of human and murine species. Gene expression profiles suggest that the IRE1α/XBP1-mediated UPR pathway is induced in secretory and metabolic tissues or organs. While deletion of the UPR trans-activator XBP1 leads to pathological phenotypes in mice, alteration in XBP1 is less associated with human disease conditions. Conclusions: Expression signatures of the major UPR genes differ among tissues or organs and among human and mouse species. The differential induction of the UPR pathways reflects the pathophysiologic differences of tissues or organs. The difference in UPR induction between human and mouse suggests the limitation of using animal models to study human pathophysiology or drugology associated with environmental stress.
  3,471 375 -
Chinese medicine and environmental disease
Lei Wang, Kun Qiao, Hengtai Zhang, Kezhong Zhang
July-September 2016, 1(3):95-98
Environmental diseases represent the major challenge to the modern human health. Despite the increased public health challenges, "Western Medicine," or modern medicine, has limited solutions in regard to the prevention or treatment of environment-associated complex chronic diseases. In contrast, "Integrative or Alternative Medicine," particularly Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), shows promising health benefits in improving the symptoms or even curing some of chronic environmental diseases. TCM defines disease as a disharmony or imbalance in the functions of inner body energy circuit or interactions between the human body and the environment. The principals of diagnosis and treatment of TCM are to identify the patterns of disharmony and restore systemic harmony inside human body and between the human body and environment. These principles are well in line with the etiology and development of modern environmental diseases. In this review, we summarize some progress in using TCM to treat environment-associated, modern human common diseases.
  3,441 297 -
Is PM2.5a double-edged sword?
Longfei Guan, Raja Anand, Yuchuan Ding
October-December 2017, 2(4):97-98
  2,445 1,271 -