Environmental Disease

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23--24

The global status of antimicrobial resistance: A long way to go


Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava1, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava2,  
1 Department of Community Medicine, Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu - 603 108
India

Abstract

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has jeopardized the prevention and therapeutic option to a broad range of infections caused by microorganisms. The findings of a recently released global survey depicted that 68%, 44% and 80% of the 154 participating nations have developed a surveillance system for reporting drug-resistant infections among humans, tracking consumption of drugs, and establishment of necessary policies to regulate the sale of the drugs respectively. Despite the presence of these measures, the presence of unregulated medicines cannot be denied and it won't be wrong to say that drugs are being sold over the counter and without the prescription. In other words, these are a direct indication that there is an immense need for better investment and focused actions to respond to the problem. To summarize, antimicrobial resistance is a major and a serious threat to the global public health and essentially requires interventions across different nations and communities to deal with the problem.



How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. The global status of antimicrobial resistance: A long way to go.Environ Dis 2020;5:23-24


How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. The global status of antimicrobial resistance: A long way to go. Environ Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Oct 6 ];5:23-24
Available from: http://www.environmentmed.org/text.asp?2020/5/1/23/283006


Full Text



 Introduction



The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has jeopardized the prevention and therapeutic option to a broad range of infections caused by microorganisms.[1] Owing to such infections, the health-care expenditures incurred have shown a remarkable rise and simultaneously the burden on the health sector has also increased big time.[2] In fact, millions of people have been exposed to drug-resistant tuberculosis, HIV, and malarial infections across the globe and the situation is becoming grim day by day.[1] Even though steps have been taken to effectively respond to AMR, nevertheless, significant gaps remain and require actions for the containment of the public health concern.[1],[2]

Current stand of nations on AMR

It has been observed that some of the nations have formulated holistic policies for the AMR targeting both the human and the animal sector, whereas other nations have just make a beginning.[3] However, none of the nations have demonstrated sustained capacity in all the required dimensions, which in itself is a cause of major concern.[3],[4] The findings of a recently released global survey depicted that 68%, 44%, and 80% of the 154 participating nations have developed a surveillance system for reporting drug-resistant infections among humans, tracking consumption of drugs, and establishment of necessary policies to regulate the sale of the drugs, respectively.[3]

Justifying the need of stringent policies

Despite the presence of these measures, the presence of unregulated medicines cannot be denied and it will not be wrong to say that drugs are being sold over-the-counter and without the prescription.[1],[2],[3] Obviously, this practice puts the health of both humans and animals at immense risk.[2] At the same time, only 40% of the nations reported that they should limit the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion in animal production.[3] In addition, majority of the nations came out with an alarming finding that they have no policy to ensure the quality and safety of antimicrobials.[3] In other words, these are a direct indication that there is an immense need for better investment and focused actions to respond to the problem.[1],[2],[3],[4]

Need of the hour

The need of the hour is to provide assistance to the low- and middle-income nations and promote the rational use of antimicrobials in animals.[1] At the same time, there is a need to encourage sustained commitment from all the involved sectors; otherwise, we may lose our precious medicines.[2] In addition, the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion in animal production has to be reduced significantly.[2],[3] Finally, mere the presence of a national policy to promote rational use of antimicrobial is of no use, unless it is implemented successfully at all the levels.[1],[3]

 Conclusion



To summarize, AMR is a major and a serious threat to the global public health and essentially requires interventions across different nations and communities to deal with the problem.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1World Health Organization. Antimicrobial Resistance – Key Facts. World Health Organization; 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance. [Last accessed on 2019 Jun 11].
2Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Much more is expected from nations to counter antimicrobial resistance: World Health Organization. J Res Med Sci 2015;20:718-9.
3World Health Organization. Countries Step up to Tackle Antimicrobial Resistance. World Health Organization; 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/18-07-2018-countries-step-up-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance. [Last accessed on 2019 Jun 11].
4Niederman MS. Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance: Using new tools to answer old questions. Chest 2019;155:1088-9.