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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-28

The prevalence of thyroid nodules and risk factors of thyroid nodules with metabolic disorder in Beijing: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and Research, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dong Zhao
Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Prevention and research, Lu He hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ed.ed_14_21

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Background: In recent years, the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) has been increasing, but the relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the incidence of TNs is not well defined, and there is scant data evaluating this relationship stratified by gender. This study aims to analyze the prevalence of TNs and possible risk factors for TNs across gender lines and various metabolic states in Beijing, China. Patients and Methods: A total of 6001 subjects who underwent thyroid ultrasounds as part of a routine medical checkup at Luhe Hospital between 2017 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. Multivariate adjustment logic was used to analyze possible demographic and clinical risk factors of TN stratified by gender. Results: The prevalence of TNs was 44.1%, of which 45.9% were female and 40% were male. In general, the prevalence of TNs increased in parallel with advancing age. These findings were even starker among females, with TN prevalences of 37.5%, 46.5%, 52.9%, and 54.1%, among participants in <55-, 55–65-, 65–75-, and >75-year-old age groups, respectively. The prevalence of TNs was significantly higher among patients with obesity (46.8% vs. 43%, P = 0.008), central obesity (45% vs. 40.4%, P = 0.005), hypertension (47.1% vs. 42.4%, P < 0.001), metabolic syndrome (MetS) (46.1% vs. 41%, P < 0.001), and low TSH levels (46.5% vs. 37.1%, P < 0.001). MetS and obesity were independent risk factors for the prevalence of TNs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.167, [1.002–1.277] and (OR = 0.038, [1.01–1.396]), respectively). TSH had a protective effect on the prevalence of TNs (OR = 0.664, [0.585–0.75]). Conclusions: The present study supports the existing research that contends a strong correlation between older age, MetS, and other clinical risk factors and the prevalence of TNs. This relationship only persisted among women when stratified by gender. These results set the precedent for further research on how gender influences the incidence of TNs, particularly in the setting of other clinical and demographic risk factors.

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